Module 2 Resources

Injury documentation and interpretation focusing on Non-Fatal Strangulation and Suffocation

Background reading

Additional reading

Resources mentioned in module


  • Langlois NE, Gresham GA. The ageing of bruises: a review and study of the colour changes with time. Forensic Sci Int 1991;50:227-38.
  • Strack GB, McClane GE, Hawley D. A review of 300 attempted strangulation cases part I: Criminal Legal Issues. J Emerg Med 2001; Vol. 21(3): 303-309.
  • Zilkens RR, Phillips MA, Kelly MC, Mukhtar SA, Semmens JB, Smith DA. Non-fatal strangulation in sexual assault: A study of clinical and assault characteristics highlighting the role of intimate partner violence. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 2016;43:1-7
  • De Boos J. Review article: Non‐fatal strangulation: Hidden injuries, hidden risks. Emergency Medicine Australasia 2019;31:302-8